gazya.ru страница 1
скачать файл

Министерство общего и профессионального образования Российской Федерации

Муниципальное бюджетное образовательное учреждение Средняя школа №28 г. Мытищи

Научно-практическая работа

по английскому языку



Тема: The Olympic Games- Sochi 2014. The Olympic Mascots”

 

Выполнили:



Ученицы 9 класса:

Козлова Анастсия (9В)

Николаенко Эвелина (9В)

Ревишвили Мари (9А)

Руководитель:

Горбунова О.В.

учитель англ. языка

г. Мытищи

2012 год

Title: ”The Olympic Games- Sochi 2014. The Olympic Mascots”

Students: Kozlova Anastasya

Nicolaenko Evelina

Revishvilli Maria

Form: 9A, 9B

School № 28, Mytischi, Moscow Region

Teacher: Gorbunova Oxana Viktorovna



THESIS

The meaning and the values of Olympism are conveyed by symbols. Among these are the rings, the motto and the flame. These symbols transmit a message in a simple and direct manner. They give the Games and the Olympic Movement an identity.

This project work is aimed to consider the following topics:

The three main Olympic symbols:



The rings

Meaning of the five rings and flag — History of the rings and flag suggested by Pierre de Coubertin in 1914 — Actual use of the rings and flag in emblems.



The motto

Citius Altius Fortius: three Latin words to convey an ideal — The Olympic creed, calling for personal excellence — History behind the motto and creed.



The flame

Ritual of lighting the flame, using the torch and organising the relay — First relay at the 1936 Berlin Games.



Part of the Games’ identity

Olympic symbols as part of the Games’ protocol — Other uses of the rings and flag.



The Olympic values and symbols

Core values of excellence, friendship and respect — Transmission

through the symbols and mascots.

We also trace that originally, the only symbols of the Olympic Games were the emblem (five interlocking rings) and the Olympic flame. The idea of an Olympic mascot was officially approved at the 73rd Session of the International Olympic Committee which took place in Munich, Germany in summer 1972. According to the applicable amendments, the Olympic Games mascot is intended to promote the principles of Olympism and to popularize the particular Games. The mascot can be a person, an animal or a fictitious being, which reflects the cultural characteristics of the host country and symbolizes the values of the modern Olympic Movement.

There are several stories about the first mascots for the Olympic Games, but most people agree that the history of having cute symbols for each Games began in 1968. Much attention is paid to mascots of the Winter Olympic Games.

On September 1, 2010 the Sochi 2014 Organizing Committee opened the Russian national competition to design a Mascot, for the Sochi Games. The competition remained open for three months, during which time anyone wishing to get involved could send in their own mascot suggestion (or even several suggestions), take a look at other participants’ suggestions and give their evaluation of others’ sketched designs.

In our project work we speak about the Olympic Look of Sochi 2014 as well. It offers a new interpretation of different cultures, traditions and ethnicities which together form a united and powerful visual identity.

At the heart of the Look of the Games concept design lies the principle of the "patchwork quilt" - a combination of 16 designs representing the most famous traditional Russian arts and crafts, ranging from Gzhel to Khokhloma. The Look of the Games concept is the visual embodiment of the Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games philosophy and is intended to express the character of modern Russia whilst at the same time introducing guests from all over the world to traditional Russian hospitality.

Taking into consideration all above mentioned we tried to make our own visual image of the Winter Olympic Games in Sochi. We’ve made the patchwork quilt where we present the most significant participants of the coming Olympics.

РЕЦЕНЗИЯ


На научно-практическую работу «Олимпийские игры- Сочи 2014. Олимпийские талисманы» соискателей Николаенко Эвелины, ученицы 9В класса, Козловой Анастасии, ученицы 9В класса, Ревишвили Мари, ученицы 9А класса МБОУ СОШ №28 города Мытищи.

Работа проводилась с целью стимулирования научно-исследовательской деятельности учащихся, а так же активизации навыков поисковой работы с первоисточниками. Задачи: систематизировать имеющуюся в интернете информацию по представляемой теме; используя собранную информацию представить собственный вариант лоскутного олимпийского одеяла, а так же видеоролик, который мог бы послужить визитной карточкой Зимних Олимпийских игр 2014 в Сочи.

Авторами в процессе подготовки и представления исследуемой темы реализован комплексный подход к обоснованию и анализу представленной темы. Проявлен высокий уровень компетентности в сфере самостоятельной исследовательской деятельности, критического и аналитического мышления и навыков работы в сотрудничестве с руководителем и друг другом.

Проект ориентирован на реализацию образовательных стандартов среднего(полного) общего образования по иностранному языку, информатике и истории. согласно ФГОС обучение иностранным языкам в школе сегодня включает целый комплекс воспитательных, образовательных и развивающих задач.

Реферативная часть работы выполнена на высоком уровне, поскольку авторы проанализировали большое количество первоисточников ,которые и послужили основой практической иллюстративной части исследовательской работы. Всю реферативную часть авторы писали самостоятельно на основе систематизации изученных источников.

Следует отметить, что авторы использовали в своей работе не только английские первоисточники, но и материалы опубликованные на русском языке.

Особо следует отметить создание иллюстративной части проекта, которая будет использоваться для защиты научной части. Учащиеся, проанализировав особенности Олимпийского лоскутного одеяла, представили собственный вариант, выполненный в той же технике. Особое мастерство и креативность авторы проявили в создании видеоролика, в котором попытались отразить все особенности предстоящих зимних Олимпийских игр.

Следует отметить, что работа представляет собой серьезную и интересную научно-практическую статью на актуальную тему.

Все содержание работы логически взаимосвязано и подтверждено цитатами из реферативных источников. Научно-практическая работа вышеупомянутых учащихся соответствует всем требованиям, предъявляемым к работам такого рода. Данная работа может быть рекомендована к участию в городской научно-практической конференции.

Рецензент:

учитель английского языка _______________ Горбунова Оксана Викторовна
CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION 3


PART I The Rings 4

  • History 4 - 5

  • The Use Of The Symbol 5

  • What Is An Olympic Emblem? 6

PART II “The Motto” 7

  • History 7

PART III “The Flame” 8

  • History 8

PERT IV Part Of The Game’s Identity 9 - 10

PART V The Olympic Values Through The Symbols 11

PART VI The General Information Of The Olympic Games 12 - 14

In Sochi 2014



PART VII Mascot’s Home 15

PART VIII The History Of Mascots 16

CONCLUSION 20

REFERENCES 21

INTRODUCTION
Our research project is intended for those who are interested in the Olympic Games. This work will allow you to learn about the origin of the Olympic Games, symbols, participants, traditions and the sports included in the program.

The aim of our work is to give a full idea of the upcoming Winter Olympic Games in Sochi 2014 Working on the project we became sure that the Olympic Games are the most significant athletic forum in the world. The Games have long ago ceased being just another sporting event – the modern Olympic Games are now also a colossal stimulus for the development of the country in which they are held. The Games bring long-term positive social and economic changes in addition to making it possible to establish new standards and to popularize the Olympic values. This rich legacy – material and non-material – remains in the host country for many years, that is why many nations compete for the right to host the Games. This project work stresses that for the winning country, the Games are a project of national value.

The emphasis is made on the origin the Olympic symbols. We have a close look at the Olympic rings, motto and flame. These symbols transmit a message in a simple and direct manner. They give the Games and the Olympic Movement an identity.

This project work is aimed to consider the following topics:

The three main Olympic symbols:

The rings

Meaning of the five rings and flag — History of the rings and flag suggested by Pierre de Coubertin in 1914 — Actual use of the rings and flag in emblems.



The motto

Citius Altius Fortius: three Latin words to convey an ideal — The Olympic creed, calling for personal excellence — History behind the motto and creed.



The flame

Ritual of lighting the flame, using the torch and organising the relay — First relay at the 1936 Berlin Games.



Part of the Games’ identity

Olympic symbols as part of the Games’ protocol — Other uses of the rings and flag.



The Olympic values and symbols

Core values of excellence, friendship and respect — Transmission

through the symbols and mascots.

In our project work we speak about the Olympic Look of Sochi 2014 as well. It offers a new interpretation of different cultures, traditions and ethnicities which together form a united and powerful visual identity.

Working on the project we’re very interested in answering the following questions: What will be the abiding memory of the Sochi 2014 winter Games? Will the Olympic family and worldwide audience judge the Games to have been a success?

Part 1

THE RINGS
The five rings represent the five continents. They are interlaced to show the universality of Olympism and the meeting of the athletes of the world during the Olympic Games. On the Olympic flag, the rings appear on a white background. Combined in this way, the six colors of the flag (blue, yellow, black, green, red and white) represent all nations. It is a misconception, therefore, to believe that each of the colors corresponds to a certain continent.


Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the modern Olympic Games, explains the meaning of the flag:

“The Olympic flag […] has a white background, with five interlaced rings in the centre: blue, yellow, black, green and red […]. This design is symbolic; it represents the five continents of the world, united by Olympism, while the six colors are those that appear on all the national flags of the world at the present time. ” (1931)



Texts choisis, vol. II, p.470.

HISTORY

Even though Pierre de Coubertin intended the Olympic Games to be an international event from the time of their re- establishment in 1896 in Athens (Greece), it was only at the 1912 Games in Stockholm (Sweden) that, for the first time, the participants came from all five continents. One year later, in 1913, the five rings appeared at the top of a letter written by Pierre de Coubertin. He drew the rings and colored them in by hand.


It was also Coubertin who had the idea for the Olympic flag. He presented the rings and

flag in June 1914 in Paris at the Olympic Congress.
The First World War prevented the Games from being celebrated in 1916 in Berlin (Germany) as planned. It was not until 1920 in Antwerp (Belgium) that the flag and its

five rings could be seen flying in an Olympic stadium.


The universality conveyed by the symbol and the flag was a new idea at the beginning of the 20th century. Nationalism was very strong and tension between certain countries was high. It was in this climate, however, that Coubertin proposed the symbol of the rings which aimed to encourage world unity.



THE USE OF THE SYMBOL

At first, the way the rings were interlaced was sometimes a little odd compared with what we are used to today.




Nowadays, the Olympic symbol is subject to very strict rules. Graphic standards have been set down, which determine, for example, the exact position and color tone of each ring. The use of the Olympic symbol in the creation of an emblem is also strictly regulated and the emblem design must be approved by the IOC.


bnkkjb

The Olympic symbol, flag and emblems are the exclusive property of the International Olympic Committee and cannot be used without the IOC’s authorization. This symbol is among the most widely recognized symbols in the world!




WHAT IS AN OLYMPIC EMBLEM?

It is a design featuring the Olympic rings together with other distinctive elements.


A kangaroo and an emu are part of the Australian NOC’s emblem. The emblem of the Organizing Committee of the Vancouver winter Games in 2010. The Olympic symbols The rings








Part II

THE MOTTO
A motto is a phrase which sums up a life philosophy or a code of conduct to follow. The Olympic motto is made up of three Latin words:


FASTER- HIGHER-STRONGER
These three words encourage the athlete to give his or her best during competition. To better understand the motto, we can compare it with the Olympic creed :
The most important thing in life is not the triumph, but the fight;

The essential thing is not to have won, but to have fought well.
Together, the Olympic motto and the creed represent an ideal that Coubertin believed in and promoted as an important life lesson that could be gained from participation in sport and the Olympic Games: that giving one’s best and striving for personal excellence was a worthwhile goal. It is a lesson that can still be applied equally today, not just to athletes but to each one of us.
HISTORY

The three Latin words became the Olympic motto in 1894, the date of the IOC’s creation. Pierre de Coubertin proposed the motto, having borrowed it from his friend Henri Didon, a Dominican priest who taught sport close to Paris.

The inspiration for the creed would come later, following a sermon given by the Bishop of Pennsylvania, Ethelbert Talbot, during the Games of London in 1908.




Part III

THE FLAME
The Olympic flame is one of the best - known features of the Games.

[See sheets The Olympic flame and torch relay].
From the moment the flame is lit, a very precise ritual is laid down:
The lighting

In memory of the modern Olympic Games’ ancient origins, the flame is lit in Olympia (Greece) some months before the opening of the Games. The Olympic flame can only be lit by the sun’s rays.


The torch

A new torch is created for each edition of the Games. Each relay runner carries his or her own torch: it is the flame which is passed from runner to runner and which cannot be extinguished.


The relay route


Carried by relay from Olympia to the host city of the Games, the fla- me crosses different regions, countries and continents. The passage of the flame announces the upcoming Olympic Games to the inhabitants along the route and allows those following its journey to discover new cultures and customs.
HISTORY

The initial lighting of the flame in Olympia and the first torch relay took place in the lead-up to the 1936 Games in Berlin (Germany).







Part IV

PART OF THE GAMES’ IDENTITY

The symbols associated with the Olympic Movement are now firmly embedded in the protocol of the Olympic Games and give rhythm and significance to its most important moments.


The flag has had a varied place in the ceremonial part of the opening and closing ceremonies since 1920. Initially, it was simply raised in the stadium.

Carrying it into the stadium as part of the ceremony was introduced in 1960 at the Games in Rome (Italy). From 1971, the decision to use athletes instead of uniformed cadets to carry the flag has added a special element of surprise to the opening ceremony as many distinguished sports people and individuals have been selected for this honor.

After its arrival, the flag is raised up the flagpole where it remains throughout the entire period of the Games. When the flag is lowered at the closing ceremony, it signals the end of the Games. Today, the tradition of transferring the Olympic flag from the mayor of the host city of the Games to the mayor of the next host city of the Games also takes place at the time of the closing ceremony, although this was not always the case.
The arrival of the Olympic flame in the stadium by torch relay is another great highlight of the opening ceremony. With the lighting of the cauldron by the last relay runner, the flame is transferred from the torch to the place where it will continue to burn for the entire length of the Games. The flame is extinguished on the final day of the Games at the closing ceremony.
Nowadays, the Olympic rings are one of the most easily identifiable visual images in the world, and everyone immediately associates them with the Olympic Games. However, this was not the case at first.
8

Below are some examples of how the rings and flag were integrated into the Olympic



Games:

Winners’ medals

The rings appeared for the first time on the winners’ medals at the 1924 Games in Paris (France). They quickly disappeared from the winners’ medals in 1928 when the IOC selected a permanent design that highlighted a seated female representative of victory and a winning athlete, but no Olympic rings. The only exception to the use of this permanent design in the period between 1928 and 1976 was for the Equestrian Games in 1956 in Stockholm (Sweden) where a distinctive medal that included the rings was created. Since the 1976 Games in Montreal (Canada) the rings have regularly featu- red on the winners’ medals of the Summer Games, used alone or with the Organizing Committee’s emblem. In the case of the Olympic Winter Games, the rings have appeared on the medals designed for each edition of the Games since 1928 in St. Moritz (Switzerland).


Items and souvenirs

You can find the rings on many items and souvenirs made for the Games dating back to the 1924 Olympic winter Games in Chamonix (France).



Stamps

The world of philately soon got to know the rings. They have appeared on stamps since the 1928 Games in Amsterdam (The Netherlands).


Official posters

The poster for the Olympic Winter Games in St. Moritz in 1928 was the first to feature the Olympic flag. For the Summer Games, it was not until the 1932 Games in los angels (USA) that the Olympic rings appeared on an official poster.



9

Part V

THE OLYMPIC VALUES THROUGH THE SYMBOLS

The values of excellence, friendship and respect are the foundation upon which the Olympic Movement brings together sport, culture and education for the betterment of human beings.


The three core values of the Olympic Movement, which are an inspiration both at individual and organizational levels, can be defined as follows:

excellence

To give one’s best, on the field of play or in life. It is not only about winning, but also about participating, making progress against personal goals, striving to be and to do our best in our daily lives.


friendship

To build a peaceful and better world thanks to sport, through solidarity, team spirit, joy and optimism. To consider sport as a tool for mutual understanding among individuals and people from all over the world, despite the differences.


respect

To respect oneself, one’s body, to respect others, as well as rules and regulations, to respect the environment. In relation to sport, respect stands for fair play and for the fight against doping or any other unethical behavior.


These three core values are conveyed through the Olympic symbols.
The motto embodies excellence by encouraging athletes to strive to do their best.
The flame symbolizes friendship between peoples with the torch relay usually travelling through different countries in the world.
The rings represents respect, bringing all nations and all five continents together without discrimination. The principles shown are universality and humanism.
These symbols are much more than emblems and people should immediately be able to associate them with fundamental values for sport and life in genre



Part VI

THE GENERAL INFORMATION ON THE OLYMPIC GAMES IN SOCHI 2014.

The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially the XXII Olympic Winter Games, or the 22nd Winter Olympics, is a major international multi-sport event scheduled to be celebrated from 7 to 23 February 2014, in Sochi city, the Russian Federation with some events held in the resort town of Krasnaya Pollyanna. Both the Olympic and Paralympics Games are being organized by the Sochi Organizing Committee (SOOC). The 2014 Winter Olympics are the first Olympics (and first Winter Olympics altogether) for the Russian Federation, as the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow were in the 'then' Soviet Union.

Sports

Fifteen winter sports events were included in the 2014 Winter Olympics. The eight sports categorized as ice sports were: bobsled, luge, skeleton, ice hockey, figure skating, speed skating, short track speed skating and curling. The three sports categorized as alpine skiing and snowboarding events were: alpine, freestyle and snowboarding. The four sports categorized as Nordic events were: biathlon, cross-country skiing, ski jumping and Nordic combined. A total of twelve new events in five sports will be contested at these games.



What will be the abiding memory of the Sochi 2014 winter Games? Will the Olympic family and worldwide audience judge the Games to have been a success? With the Opening Ceremony still two years away, these and other questions are being addressed by the organizers of the 2014 Olympic and Paralympics Winter Games in Sochi.

Did you know this will be the first time Russia is host to games since the fall of the Soviet Union. Previously, they were held in what is currently Russia in 1980. Those were the famous games the Americans decided to boycott. Remember, this was a heated time of the cold war. Moreover, these games will be held in two separate cities. Officially, the bid was won by the city of Sochi, but the events will be split between the former and Krasnaya, a resort town close by. To make the comparison with the 2010 Vancouver games, the actual events were not held directly in the city, but rather in the outskirts in order to have a natural setting for events such as cross country skiing, skating and bobsleigh. Speaking of Vancouver, it is the tradition the mayor of the upcoming games be present at the closing ceremonies. Major Pakhomov was indeed handed the flame for the next winter Olympics 2014. Until the beginning of the next games, it is kept by the SOOC – Sochi Organizing Olympics Committee – for safeguard.

There is a lot to be said about the town of Sochi as well. It is located in the European side of the country. It is a costal town bordering the black sea. The main installations for the games are currently being built on the shores of the sea, showcasing some of Russia’s most beautiful natural assets. Furthermore, the town is undergoing major infrastructure building. In

preparation to the 2014 winter Olympics, hotels, public transit, power plants and the wide array of services stemming from each individual industries are being built. In the short run, this has actually hurt Sochi’s economy. The town primarily relies on tourism for it’s economic activity. Inflation in the region is currently estimated to hover around 10% to 15% a year solely based on those two weeks in 2014. Thus, receiving one of the biggest events in the world can be both a huge honor and profitable over the long run, but also has some consequences for the locals.



The sports were separated into three categories; ice sports, skiing and snowboarding and Nordic. Some only have a few elimination rounds before the finals, others will have games every day throughout the two weeks. The Skeleton for example will only be on the 13th and 14th whereas ice hockey will have matches from the 7th to the 23rd. The location os Sochi renders it the perfect place in Russia to hold these types of games. All ice sports will be held around the Black Sea. It’s proximity to mountainous regions will allow for the alpine skiing and snowboarding events to take place. These will be in the neighboring town of Krasnaya. The games will be split into two close cities. A modern public transit system is currently being built relaying the two.

The calendar for all the events has been revealed. The opening ceremonies will be held on the 7th of February 2014. Some of the most anticipated events have started selling out veryquickly. More noticeably, ice hockey and ski jumping tickets can be bought online for thousands of dollars.



Part VII

MASCOT’S HOME

On September 1, 2010 the Sochi 2014 Organizing Committee opened the Russian national competition to design a Mascot, for the Sochi Games. The competition remained open for three months, during which time anyone wishing to get involved could send in their own mascot suggestion (or even several suggestions), take a look at other participants’ suggestions and give their evaluation of others’ sketched designs.

By the time the competition stopped accepting entries (on December 5, 2010), over 24,000 sketches had been sent in to the Sochi 2014 Organizing Committee. Entries could be sent in either via the Internet or by post. More than a million people followed the competition online, and each week we received over a thousand new entries.

The Sochi 2014 Partners were all fully supportive of the competition, helping to communicate news about it to the public. Application forms were made available in all of BoscoSPORT’s branches, all of Rosneft’s automobile repair centres, all of Volkswagen Group Rus’s showrooms and in every single MegaFon sales office. The Ingosstrakh insurance company mobilized 323 of its company offices in Russian to disseminate information about the mascot competition, and distributed around 30,000 application forms. Russian Railways gave all passengers on board its Sapsan trains the chance to draw a sketch of their proposed mascot while in transit. Meanwhile, Aeroflot arranged for its flight attendants to hand out application forms to passengers flying between Moscow and Sochi. Sberbank of Russia played an active role in keeping the public informed about the competition, through its corporate literature. And MegaFon even lent its support to a series of television programs entitled “The Star Mascot”, broadcast on the MuzTV channel.

People from all over the country took part in the mascot ideas competition. All of Russia’s regions, from Kaliningrad to Khabarovsk, participated in it. The top three regions, in terms of participation, were: The Central, North-Western and Privolzhsky Federal Regions. The opinions of Russian citizens living abroad were also taken into consideration. There was no age limit to participation in the competition.

The results of the first round of the poll to select mascots for the Olympic and Paralympic Games were announced by an expert judging panel, which boasted famous names from the fields of culture, education, sport, business and politics. The competition’s judging panel was headed by Director General of the Channel One Russia, Konstantin Ernst.

The shortlists that had been compiled at the end of this stage were discussed by the expert judging panel during a general meeting. At the meeting, the judges selected 10 sets of mascot suggestions for the Sochi 2014 Olympic Games and 3 sets of mascot suggestions for the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Games which, in their opinion, were worthy of inclusion in the final shortlist.

In the period between December 2010 and February 2011, a team of artists and animators will create cartoon images of the shortlisted suggestions, for TV. In early February the mascot candidates for the Sochi Games will be presented to the nation. The winning mascot will be announced on live TV after a national text message poll. The chosen mascot should be something that reflects a unique aspect of our culture. It should be something that is close to our hearts and instantly recognizable to millions of people of different ages, professions and nationalities.

For the first time in the history of the Olympic movement, a whole nation will be taking part in the selection of its Olympic mascot. The mascot for the Sochi Games will become the symbol of Russia to the whole world, for some years to come - and the symbol of a whole epoch to the people of Russia..




Part VIII

THE HISTORY OF MASCOTS
It is interesting that, originally, the only symbols of the Olympic Games were the emblem (five interlocking rings) and the Olympic flame. The idea of an Olympic mascot was officially approved at the 73rd Session of the International Olympic Committee which took place in Munich, Germany in summer 1972. According to the applicable amendments, the Olympic Games mascot is intended to promote the principles of Olympism and to popularize the particular Games. The mascot can be a person, an animal or a fictitious being, which reflects the cultural characteristics of the host country and symbolizes the values of the modern Olympic Movement.

The IOC does not regulate the procedures for choosing a mascot, leaving the decision to the Organizers of the Games. This means that the process of designing and selecting the mascot is done differently each time. More often than not, the mascots are thought up by professional designers based on public opinion surveys and market research. In this case, the Executive Board of the IOC must approve whichever mascot is chosen, since it is one of the Olympic Games symbols and will be liable to copyright laws.

Following tradition, the mascot (or mascots) for the Olympic Games in Sochi will be officially revealed three years before the opening ceremonies, i.e. in 2011. The Sochi 2014 Organizing Committee has decided that the mascot selection process should be as open as possible, and take into account the opinions of a cross section of specialists, professional designers, sports fans and the public.

There are several stories about the first mascots for the Olympic Games, but most people agree that the history of having cute symbols for each Games began in 1968.


OLYMPIC MASCOTS

Stylized skier, Schuss - a toy created for the 1968 Olympic Winter Games in Grenoble (France). Badges and figures of Schuss became so popular that he became the unofficial mascot of the Games.


The 1972 Olympic Winter Games in Sapporo (Japan) did not have a mascot. However, the Summer Games of the same year in Munich (Germany), had the dachshund Waldi as the mascot. This is where the tradition of official Olympic mascots began.







The 1976 Olympic Winter Games in Innsbruck (Austria) Originally the XII Olympic Winter Games were going to be held in Denver (USA). However, in a referendum residents of the city decided not to host the Games because of the threat to the environment. After a competition, the Games were moved to Innsbruck, which had hosted the Games in a previous year. The Organizers dubbed these Games “the Games of Simplicity”. The chosen mascot - an Olympic snowman - was supposed to represent this quality.



The 1980 Olympic Winter Games in Lake Placid (USA): Roni the Racoon was chosen as the mascot, as the marks on the face of this traditional American animal resemble the goggles and winter hats worn by the competitors. This was the first time the mascot represented a competitor in a winter sport.



The 1984 Olympic Winter Games in Sarajevo (Yugoslavia): Vučko the Little Wolf was voted the mascot from a choice of six candidates by the readers of three popular Yugoslavian newspapers. This symbol received a mixed response because the wolf is traditionally a frightening image. According to the designer, the little wolf symbolized the human desire “to befriend animals and become closer to nature”.





The 1988 Olympic Winter Games in Calgary (Canada): The polar bears Hidy and Howdy were the first pair of mascots (according to their story they are brother and sister, and their names come from the word “hi”.)







The 1992 Olympic Winter Games in Albertville (France): The 1992 Winter Games in France were the last to be held in the same year as the Summer Games. After this there would be a two year gap between the sporting events; this was also the first time the Paralympic Games were held. The mascot for the Games was a mountain elf, Magique, in the shape of a star and in France's national colours. This was the first time the mascot was changed. Two years before the Games the mascot was a mountain chamois, but it was not very popular and was changed.



The 1994 Olympic Winter Games in Lillehammer (Norway): At the Games in Lillehammer the mascots were people for the first time: a boy and girl, Håkon and Kristin, brother and sister from Norwegian folklore. The heroes' images were actively used to advertise the Games, which made them very popular among athletes and fans.





The 1998 Olympic Winter Games in Nagano (Japan): The Snowlets, owlets Sukki, Nokki, Lekki and Tsukki, which symbolized wisdom and the four seasons of the year. Their names were chosen from 47,484 suggestions, which were submitted to the Organizing Committee by residents of Japan. Since the four owlets of the Nagano Games, neither the summer nor the winter Games (not counting the Paralympics Games) have had single mascots.





The 2002 Olympic Winter Games in Salt Lake City (USA): The mascots were a hare, a coyote and a bear with very specific national characteristics. Their images were supposed to resemble the main sources of income of the city: powder, copper and coal. These characters also symbolised the Olympic motto “Citius, Altius, Fortius” (“Faster, higher, stronger”).





The 2006 Olympic Winter Games in Turin (Italy): The snowball Neve and ice cube Gliz, mascots for the Turin Games, were aimed at a young audience. Their main qualities included enthusiasm, passion for sport and care for the environment. The images were created by designer Pedro Albuquerque, who won an international design competition run by the Turin 2006 Organizing Committee.



The 2010 Olympic Winter Games in Vancouver (Canada): The 2010 Winter Games had a group of mascots: Quatchi and Miga for the Olympic Games and Sumi for the Paralympic Games. An “unofficial” mascot was also created - Mukmuk, their so-called “sidekick”. According to the organizers, the mascots, as personifications from mythology, fulfilled an important goal - to tell the world about Canada, a country inhabited by distinctive ethnic groups.
The Olympic symbols
February, 26th, Moscow, Russia – The Hare, Polar Bear and Leopard have been chosen as the official Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games mascots following the results of a public vote during the live television show "Talismaniya Sochi 2014 - The Final” on Channel One. The Ray of Light and the Snowflake will be the Paralympics Winter Games mascots in 2014.

Following the contest regulations, all the rights to the mascot images have now passed to the Sochi 2014 Organizing Committee. All of the authors of the designs that appeared in the final have received certificates for attending the opening ceremonies of the Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games in 2014. The authors of the design ideas, which became prototypes of the mascots, have also been awarded with commemorative medals and gifts from the Sochi 2014 Partner Megaphone.

The authors are:

Oleg Serdechniy, 1957, Sochi (the White bear),

Vadim Pak, 1977, Nakhodka (the Leopard),

Silviya Petrova, 1994, the Chuvash republic state, Yankovsky region, New Buyanovo village (the Hare)




CONCLUTION


In this study, it was set to examine the Olympic symbols and values as well as how the national identity of Russia can be defined due to the upcoming Winter Olympic Games in Sochi 2014.
We are fully agree with the following statement: “We are able to be proud of our rich sportive traditions with our champions and records. The choosing of Sochi to host the 2014 Winter Olympic Games would be a recognition of the place of Russia in the

Olympic Movement strengthening the ideals of Olympism.” (President Putin, 2006)


This project work has helped us to understand that the Games in Sochi are both the starting point and an indicator of positive changes in the social, cultural and sports life of the country. The Sochi 2014 project will be the key element in enhancing the positive international image of Russia. It is important for the Games to find a character, understandable for most people of different ages, professions and nationalities.
The Olympics are considered to be the most important arena of nations competing with each other when at the same time uniting the entire world. The definitions ‘West’, ‘Europe’, ‘self’, and ‘other’ were of key importance in this study.
In the 21st century, Russia has introduced a strong leader with the re-establishment of a former Great Power might. The Vancouver Games were a disappointment for Russia, not supporting this powerful image. The upcoming Sochi Games in 2014 are a great challenge to Russia that seeks to perform well both in terms of athletics as well as in the international arena in general.
Overall, the process of searching was extremely interesting and educating. When starting to develop the original idea, we planned to connect the study of Olimpism as a worldwide movement to Russia in the Olympics from a national identity point of view.
The subject is of course too wide to be exhaustively studied within one project work and much interesting traits remain to be completed, one being the upcoming Winter Olympic Games in Sochi – a true test to Russia’s ability to host a globally celebrated event.
In our project work we speak about the Olympic Look of Sochi 2014 as well. It offers a new interpretation of different cultures, traditions and ethnicities which together form a united and powerful visual identity.

At the heart of the Look of the Games concept design lies the principle of the "patchwork quilt" - a combination of 16 designs representing the most famous traditional Russian arts and crafts, ranging from Gzhel to Khokhloma. The Look of the Games concept is the visual embodiment of the Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games philosophy and is intended to express the character of modern Russia whilst at the same time introducing guests from all over the world to traditional Russian hospitality.

Taking into consideration all above mentioned we tried to make our own visual image of the Winter Olympic Games in Sochi. We’ve made the patchwork quilt where we present the most significant participants of the coming Olympics.

REFERENCES




  1. http://www.google.ru/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=sochi%202014%20the%20winter%20olympics&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCkQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fsochi2014.com%2F&ei=Rp98T8OeHsX5sgam2NGkCQ&usg=AFQjCNFod3HSRED-_16KoYcMo7XSGaUbkA&cad=rjt

  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2014_Winter_Olympics

  3. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-15325178

  4. http://www.olympic.org/

  5. http://sc-os.ru/en/

  6. http://rbth.ru/articles/2010/02/23/230210_olympic.html

  7. https://jyx.jyu.fi/dspace/handle/123456789/25619
скачать файл



Смотрите также:
Практическая работа по английскому языку Тема: The Olympic Games- sochi 2014. The Olympic Mascots
161.55kb.
1 Цифровое фото и видео Практическая работа Кодирование графической информации Практическая работа 2
56.27kb.
Рабочая программа по английскому языку 9 класс
1036.7kb.
Контрольная работа по английскому языку, 4 класс
32.81kb.
Урок лабораторно-практическая работа "Изготовление накладных карманов с использованием элементов художественной обработки"
146.93kb.
Результаты районной олимпиады по английскому языку
40.55kb.
Результаты первого тура Прикаспийской межрегиональной олимпиады школьников по английскому языку
175.13kb.
Программа по английскому языку Третья ступень обучения
32.9kb.
Открытый урок по английскому языку в 5-м классе по теме
66.35kb.
Примерная программа по иностранному языку для 10 класса (источник сайт mon gov ru) Учебник: Кузовлев В. П. Английский язык: учебник для 10 классов общеобразовательных учреждений. М.: Просвещение, 2008
91.15kb.
Рабочие программы по французскому языку для 5-11 классов на 2013-2014 учебный год
769.09kb.
Практическая работа №6 тема «ионные реакции»
15.25kb.